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Importance And Usage Of Discourse Analysis In Research




Analysis of the data in the qualitative and quantitative forms is necessary to extract logical consequences in research. However, the methods to analyze both types of data are entirely different. For quantitative data analysis, statistical analysis is helpful. In contrast, statistical tools cannot be applied in the qualitative analysis unless or until we first convert the data into a quantitative form. This article aims to discuss a qualitative data analysis method named discourse analysis by describing its brief introduction, types, steps, importance, and applications.

1. Discourse Analysis- A brief introduction:

Discourse Analysis is a method of analyzing the structure of utterances and text. In other words, it is a sort of linguistic analysis that considers both the linguistic content and sociolinguistic context. It is a broad field of study that draws its analysis method from other disciplines such as psychology, philosophy, sociology, and linguistics. The term discourse analysis was first used by Zellig Harris- a sentence linguist, in 1952. Discourse analysis, in Zellig’s own words, is:

“A method for the analysis of connected speech or writing for continuing descriptive linguistics beyond the limit of a simple sentence at a time.”

Zellig Harris has provided enough information about this type of analysis through his classical definition. To further simplify the concept, we can say that discourse analysis is simply the ‘analysis of the discourse.’ Moreover, discourse refers to the ‘language in use.’ The language in use means a set of expectations, preferences, and norms which link language to the social context. Thus, when someone asks for discourse analysis, he wants you to explain the use of the language in a particular context.

For example: if a researcher analyzes how people in a given setting use subject-specific or other terminologies to understand their upbringing, this qualitative method of study will fall under the head of discourse analysis.

Read More: Top Artificial Intelligence (AI) Trends In 2022

2. Type of discourse analysis:

The use of language in this method is not limited to qualitative research. It is a broad term that we can use whenever we have to examine the discourse in a social context. The mentioned below are some other types that aim to facilitate researchers in the analysis of the discourse:

  1. Critical discourse analysis:
  2. Applied linguistics:
  3. Rhetorical analysis:
  4. Interactional sociolinguistics:
  5. Speech act theory:
  6. Ethnography of communication:
  7. Cognitive psychology:
  8. Variation analysis:
  9. Pragmatics:
  10. Conservation analysis:

Moreover, you can conduct it in these four types: descriptive, expository, argumentative, and narrative.

3. Ways to conduct the discourse analysis:

Basically, there is no hard and fast rule or a pre-defined set of steps to conduct the analysis that is a discourse in nature. However, the following steps stated by a firm providing PhD dissertation writing services will tell you some simple ways to conduct it:

  • Read the literature:

The analysis must start by reading the text, response, and literature for research. The more focused you will be while reading a text, the better analysis you can conduct.

  • Make research questions: 

The research question in academic research is often formulated in the preliminary stages. Moreover, if you are conducting the analysis to understand a book or advertisement, you need to research questions after reviewing the full text. In research, the analysis starts by searching the suitable material for answering the research questions.

  • Establish the context: 

This step refers to the collection of data for research along with the proper referencing so it can fit in your context. It is even better to make a source library at this step for later use.

  • Prepare the material you collected for analysis: 

Preparation of material so that you can easily use it in the analysis is the primary purpose of this step. Material can be prepared in any form, complex as well as soft.

  • Select proper codes for the material: 

Here, you need to assign attributes to words, paragraphs, and sentences prominent in the prepared material. Also, to know how to assign codes and make themes, you can search for a detailed guide.

  • Examine individual statements:

At this step, analyze how the main argument is structured and compare it with your previous information to know whether there are any counter-facts. The simplest way is to code different points of view to analyze the content.

  • Identify cultural references, linguistic, and rhetorical mechanisms: 

This step differentiates the discourse analysis from other types of content analysis as it involves the identification of the fact that refers to how discourse fragment operates at the level of language. Similarly, you should look for rhetorical and linguistic facts, models, and speech in each discourse fragment. Likewise, you must evaluate the relationship between all the sources used in an analysis to find the cultural references.

  • Interpret your data and present your findings: 

Last but not least is the extraction of meaningful findings in the light of the analysis and its presentation so that even a lame person can read it easily.

4. Importance of discourse analysis:

It is essential in research due to several reasons. First, it helps researchers in unveiling the motivation behind a text. It allows researchers to view a problem from a higher stance. Second, it focuses on interaction and allows the reader to understand the text beyond its literal meaning words. Third, communication discourse provides compelling ways to study how people present themselves and how they manage their relationships and create organization. Fourth, in education, the discourse helps educationalists create a second language learning environment. This second language allows students to reflect more accurately on the use of language and encourage them to achieve their goals of attaining proficiency in other languages. It is meant to increase the understanding of the underlying meaning of literature in a linguistic, historical, and social context.

5. Applications of discourse analysis:

As a matter of course, conducting discourse analysis means accessing how language functions and how its meaning can be manipulated in a different social context. It can be applied to any piece of writing and a verbal piece of communication. It has a significant number of applications as it considers the verbal or written piece of communication and gives significant results in the analysis of non-verbal communication such as gestures and tone. Furthermore, you can use this method of analysis for the examination of the following types of material:

  1. Market materials such as advertisements, broachers, and government documents
  2. Books
  3. News
  4. Periodicals
  5. Websites
  6. Interviews and conversation

The discourse analysis helps researchers develop a deep understanding of social groups and identify ways of communication among them.

Final thoughts: 

We know that discourse analysis is all about using several theories and methods derived initially from the multi-disciplinary approaches to understand a text’s underlying meaning (written, verbal or non-verbal). It aims to examine the language used in literature in the social and historical aspects. In research, it helps researchers better understand the interviews and responses collected from different social groups and explore the relationship between their conversations. Its application is not limited to research-related literature; instead, it is equally essential for analyzing the content in books, magazines, websites, marketing material, and many more.

Author Bio:

I am Arslan Shah a professional author based in London, UK. I’m always ready to provide students with unique, high-quality, and inspiring essay writing services on any subject. I’m happy to share these insights with a broad audience, so don’t miss the chance to expand your horizons.

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Tips to choose the best technical analysis course



Although there are many technical analysis courses offered, not all of them are equal. It’s critical to comprehend what each course delivers if you want to master technical analysis effectively. By examining historical and current data, technical analysis is a strategy for predicting the price movement of assets in the future. Professionally run institutions specify a course’s goals and target audience in great detail. Avoid being duped by extravagant claims made by certain experts who profess to be specialists to promote their courses. The issues you should think about before choosing a technical analysis training course are outlined in this article.

Plan your objectives.

Determine what you hope to gain from a technical analysis course as a first step. Do you wish to become proficient in chart reading and pattern recognition? Or do you want to learn more about advanced topics in technical analysis? You can limit your alternatives once you know what you want to accomplish. Only when your needs and the course objectives align should you pick a course. Choose a course where the course material is outlined in detail. Verify that all topics, tools, procedures, and pertinent regulatory problems are covered throughout the course.

Take into account your degree of expertise

Finding a course that begins with the fundamentals and progressively advances your knowledge is crucial if you are a total novice. On the other side, if you have prior knowledge in technical analysis, you’ll require a more advanced course. Before choosing a course, make careful to review the curriculum. Before enrolling in the course, clear up any questions you may have concerning the course’s content. Additionally, you should look into the method of instruction. Whether it uses practical exercises and up-to-date case studies or merely information downloads. Choose a course that uses actual case studies. These details are available from former pupils.

Choose a learning style.

While some people learn better by listening to lectures, others like a more active learning style. It’s critical to choose which format would work for you best technical analysis course classes are offered in both. If you’re unsure before choosing a course, you may always test out a few other ones.

Track Record

Check the faculty’s track record as a technical analyst if you decide to enroll in a technical analysis course. His advice and opinions, particularly at pivotal moments, can help you gain understanding. This is very much achievable now because of the development of electronic media like websites and blogs. On their websites, qualified technical analysts do maintain a time-stamped list of suggestions. or free articles.


Infrastructure is quite important as well. Each student in a financial modeling course should have a computer in the classroom, according to the institution. Better be sure before registering, or else you’ll need to bring your laptop. If you enroll in a technical analysis course, the school should provide you with guidance about the charting software you should purchase following the course. Additionally, the institute must provide help after the training. Additionally, if you plan to enroll in a technical analysis school, keep in mind that charting software costs between Rs 10,000 and Rs 25,000 annually. Even if utilizing charting software requires a computer and a broadband internet connection, it may seem basic to take into mind.

Compare costs and duration

The cost and length of technical analysis courses might vary greatly. While some are more economical and may be finished quickly, others are more expensive and take many months to complete. When selecting a course, it’s crucial to take both into account. A training lasting one or two days will cost between Rs 3,000 and Rs 12,000 in total. The cost of long-duration programming ranges from Rs 15,000 to Rs 25,000. After finishing the course, students require assistance from the faculty to resolve their questions. Sometimes free refresher classes are preferable. Some institutions also provide students with online discussion boards and groups where they may share questions, deals, and investment ideas with professors and other students. This makes a lot more sense if you are unfamiliar with markets. Get

Verify the qualifications of the teachers.

Make sure you’re receiving top-notch teaching when you pay for a technical analysis course. Make sure to go over the instructors’ qualifications to determine whether they have any professional certifications or real-world experience. Verify the instructors’ qualifications before enrolling in the course. Since these courses are application-oriented, the role of the faculty is particularly crucial. Professional organizations with a proven track record guarantee that faculties have a wealth of market knowledge in their respective fields. However, you need to be cautious when it comes to people or obscure institutions offering courses.

Nobody acquires expertise overnight. A quality course from Finlearn Academy equips you with information that you can apply to your advantage. Give yourself time to process all you learned in the training before applying it gradually to the market. The majority of courses also include some lessons on discipline-building risk and money management. You will be rewarded if you apply your knowledge, practice discipline, and have patience.

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What are the advantages of studying engineering in India?



studying engineering in India

India is growing at a remarkable rapidity, in terms of commerce and economy. An adept engineer in 2022 thus can avail of a plethora of employment opportunities. In India engineering education is thriving in close association with the industry and students are always kept in touch with contemporary industry requirements. Studying engineering in India is less expensive than anywhere else in the world and the selection process is arduous for a student. The eligibility test is administered in the form of IIT and joint entrance tests. two of the most difficult exams in the world. Thus, Indian students eligible for taking up studies in engineering are already better prepared than students elsewhere. The Indian engineering education sector is developed around the needs of qualified students. Thus they possess the ability to command respect from eligible students. And to do that the institutes in India are always upgrading themselves by the industry standards. 

Why now?

In 2022 the world is opening up to new possibilities. After emerging devastated from one of the deadliest pandemics in human history. Humanity is resuming the journey of progress. Thus new ventures and startups are sprouting all across the map. These new ventures due to their stature and the environment they are born in are ideal choices for relevant skill development. And an Indian engineering graduate can avail of them with ease. In the industrial cities, where education and industry go hand in hand, the opportunities are plenty. For example, studying top mechanical engineering in Ghaziabad, Bangalore or any other industrial city will involve more chances for at-work learning. Armed with these relevant skills and trained in a market like India’s, an engineer can take on any challenge under a plethora of circumstances regardless of localization. 

The advantages 

Adept and caring teachers 

Indian engineering education is catered by teachers who understand the situation of a student. And their sympathy reflects in their approach to teaching. In the long-standing and reputed institutes, teachers possess experience in placing entire batches of students into relevant positions in the industry. And placing another for internships and jobs is mostly a cakewalk for them. And through these students placed in key positions in the industry, the Indian engineering faculty is constantly in touch with the industry demands. And are known for preparing students accordingly. 

An updated curriculum 

The state of a curriculum decides upon the quality and quantity of knowledge a student receives during their tenure.  A curriculum designed by faculty constantly in touch with the industry. Is expected to be updated regularly.  A good syllabus will make sure all the necessary knowledge and skills are instilled in a student before they embark on a professional journey. Thus the curriculum of good engineers is always carefully updated by the faculty at the helm. And must include scopes and temporal allowances for hands-on training and at-work skill development. 

Employment opportunities 

Engineers graduating from top mechanical engineering in Ghaziabad, Bangalore or any other industrial city are likely to get ample opportunities in the industry, obviously depending upon the presence of relevant skills. 

In data-dependent ventures, a  computer engineer or IT professional with ample data adeptness is an asset. Armed with relevant data-related skills they can change the paradigms of operations for the best. And transform a business into its best version 

In logistics, an engineer in India can be deployed in a plethora of roles. The public transport systems in India are among the largest in the world. And maintenance of these systems is the essence of the country’s survival. Thus employment opportunities for civil, electrical, mechanical and automobile engineers in India are available in abundance. 

In the electricity and power sectors electrical, electronics and communication engineers are being deployed with absolute finesse. The country’s infrastructure is rapidly growing and engineers are at the helm of this progress. Maintenance and growth of Indian infrastructure is an expensive process and engineers in all relevant sectors are in positions of the essence. The skill development opportunities are abundantly available and placement opportunities are also expected to sustain for a long time to come. 

In civil and construction India is setting benchmarks of pace and perfection. The country must possess infrastructure that can support the huge population and thriving commercial sector. And civil and mechanical engineers in this sector are thus becoming important assets to the nation. Thus the skill development opportunities are abundant in these sectors as well. And the importance is expected to sustain for a long time to come.  

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Getting Started With Startup Counselling




Startup Counselling

Getting started with startup counselling is easier said than done. While the business of counselling is an area of expertise that you’re passionate about, you may not want to have to spend a lot of time juggling all of the administrative work that comes with it. Here are some tips to make your business more manageable. Read on to learn more. Listed below are four tips to get your startup counselling off the ground. Using this information will ensure that you make the right choices for your business.

Business plan

If you are planning to start a new counseling practice, you must develop a business plan. This plan should cover the starting costs, your fixed and variable expenses, and your projections for five years. The goal of the executive summary is to quickly engage the reader. In the executive summary, you must explain what type of counseling private practice you are starting and how you plan to reach your goals. A business plan is also a good tool for making adjustments as your practice grows and evolves.

Startup Counselling

To make the business plan more readable, use at least two typefaces. Modern sans-serif fonts are appropriate for this purpose. Body copy should be in 11 to 12-point font size. You may also want to use a standard text editor for writing the document. Keep in mind that the fonts you choose must be legible and not distracting. If you have a difficult time reading the document, use a different font for the body copy.

Business model

If you are considering starting a private practice, creating a business plan for your counselling business can help you reach your goals. When developing your business plan, consider your customer’s needs and the return on investment that you can expect. Identify your marketing strategies and determine where you want to locate your private practice. In addition, develop an operational plan, detailing how you plan to meet your goals. In addition to your marketing strategy, a business plan should include your financial projections.

Startup Counselling

Creating a startup is a complex process. There are a variety of factors that must be taken into consideration, from location and pricing to target markets and reputation. Even if you don’t have direct competition, indirect competitors are likely to make up a significant portion of your market. To make this process easier, try using the Business Model Canvas. To create a better business model, Have a list at what you want your startup to achieve.


One of the most important things to consider when starting a business is the pricing of your product or service. You need to determine the price you will charge customers and the value they get in return. The difference between price and value is called customer profit. The price should be less than what a customer can expect to receive in return for the product or service. However, you must remember that a customer will not buy something that costs more than it is worth.

The goal of pricing in startup counseling should be to attract paying clients and maximize revenue. Even if you can’t get many, starting with one paying client is a good way to test the system, provide value metrics, and establish viability. In addition, getting one low-paying client can ultimately drive higher-paying clients later on. In fact, the initial low-paying clients are often the ones who drive your future road map.

Getting started

Startup Counselling

If you are starting a startup, you should be aware that the early days of employee onboarding are often challenging. In addition to the psychological aspects, startup founders often feel that they are imposters and want to feel like they belong. Fortunately, there are plenty of ways to deal with this. Listed below are some tips to help you get started. These tips may help you cope with the early days of employee onboarding.

– Identifying the problem and developing a solution. Startups typically struggle with funding and have a tight schedule. As a result, the counsel they receive is focused on the needs of their target audience. For example, founders should consider addressing a customer’s need and identifying their pain points. If the business isn’t solving a customer’s problem, there’s no way it can be successful. Startup counsellors can help with this.

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